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Academic Profile - Dr Caroline Winter



Dr Caroline Winter has worked at the University of Southern Queensland, La Trobe University, Charles Sturt University and Federation University where she taught tourism, management and research methods. Caroline is interested in the natural environment and sustainability, and her early research concerned values (intrinsic and instrumental) for natural places. She has also published articles about tourism and climate change. Recently Caroline began work relating to the ethical issues of using domestic animals in the tourism and leisure industries. Dr Winter’s current and primary research focus concerns the First World War (1914-1918), and the way in which social memory and remembrance are formed through tourist activities. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in these projects, including questionnaires and short interviews with visitors, and analysis of visitor books at the military cemeteries. Places on the old Somme battlefield, such as Pozières in France, and Ieper/Ypres in Belgium, are Caroline’s favourite places to work.


  • Grad Cert Higher Ed. University of Ballarat
  • PhD, Charles Sturt University
  • MA, Monash University
  • BA (Hons), Charles Sturt University
  • BBus (Tourism Mgt) Charles Sturt University
  • BBus (Accounting), Darwin Institute of Technology

Contact details

T: +61 3 9606 2315

Areas of expertise

  • Quantitative research: visitor experience and motivations
  • Social memory relating to battlefield tourists for the First World War: military cemeteries, museums, commemorative events and memorials
  • Ethics and use of animals in the tourism and leisure industries
  • Values for natural environments


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List of research publications


  • Martin, J., Rogers, M., & Winter, C. (Eds.). (2009). Climate change in regional Australia: Social learning and adaptation. Ballarat: VURRN.

Book chapters

  • Winter, C. (2016). Celebrating peace and commemorating war in the city of Ieper. In K. Reeves, G. Bird, L. James, B. Stichelbaut, J. Bourgeois (Eds.), Battlefield events: Landscape, commemoration and heritage. London: Routledge.
  • Winter, C., & Young, W. (2015). Fatalities and fascinators: A new perspective on thoroughbred racing. In N. Carr (Ed.), Domestic animals and leisure (pp. 241-258). London: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Winter, C. (2015). The Pozières son et lumière: Peace and memory after the Great War. In A. Jepson, A. Clarke (Eds.), Exploring community festivals and events (pp. 212-223). London: Routledge.
  • Winter, C. (2011). Battlefield tourism and Australian national identity: Gallipoli and the Western Front. In EF. Frew, L. White (Eds.), Tourism and national identities: An international perspective (pp. 176-189). London: Routledge.
  • Linke, S., & Winter, C. (2011). Conservation, education or entertainment. In W. Frost (Ed.), Zoos and tourism: Conservation, education entertainment? (pp. 69-81). Clevedon: Channel View.
  • Winter, C., & Frew, EF. (2009). Holidays at home: Exploring the role of regional recreation. In J. Martin, M. Rogers, C. Winter (Eds.), Climate change in regional Australia (pp. 282-30). Ballarat: VURRN.
  • Winter, C. (2007). Tourism, nation and power: A Foucauldian perspective. In A. Church, T. Coles (Eds.), Tourism, power and space (pp. 101-121). London: Routledge.

Journal articles

  • Winter, C. (2015). Social memory and battle names: Exploring links between travel, memory and the media. Tourism and Hospitality Research, Published online December 29, DOI: 10.1177/1467358415624006.
  • Winter, C. (2015). Ritual, remembrance and war: Social memory at Tyne Cot. Annals of Tourism Research, 54, 16-29.
  • Winter, C., & Young, W. (2014). Fashion, fantasy and fallen horses: Alternate images of thoroughbred racing. Annals of Leisure Research, 17(4), 359-376.
  • Winter, C. (2014). Work, travel and home: A study of remembrance activity. Current Issues in Tourism, Published on line.
  • Winter, C. (2014). Public perception of war memorials: A study in Ballarat. Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 20(1), 210-230.
  • Winter, C. (2014). Tourism to the battlefield memorials in Fromelles. Tourism Review International, 17(3):211-222.
  • Sharifpour, M., Walters, G., Ritchie, B.W., & Winter, C. (2014). Investigating the role of prior knowledge in tourist decision making: A structural equation model of risk perceptions and information search. Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 307-322.
  • Winter, C. (2012). Commemoration of the Great War on the Somme: Exploring personal connections. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change 10(3), 248-263.
  • Winter, C. (2011). Cemeteries of the First World War: Insights from visitor books. Tourism Geographies, 13(3), 462-479.
  • Winter, C. (2011). Battlefield visitor motivations: Explorations in the Great War town of Ieper, Belgium. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(2), 164-176.
  • Frew, E., & Winter, C. (2010). Tourist response to climate change: Regional and metropolitan diversity. Tourism Review International, 13 (4), 237-246.
  • Zhu X., Pfueller, S., Whitelaw, P., & Winter, C. (2010). Spatial differentiation of landscape values in the Murray River Region of Victoria, Australia. Environmental Management, 45,896-911.
  • Winter, C. (2009). Tourism, social memory and the Great War. Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 607-626.
  • Winter, C. (2009). The Shrine of Remembrance Melbourne: A short study of visitors’ experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research 11(6), 553-565.
  • Winter, C., & Gallon S. (2008). Exploring attitudes towards Tourism Australia’s “Where the bloody hell are you?” campaign. Current Issues in Tourism, 11 (4), 301-314.
  • Winter, C. (2007). The intrinsic, instrumental and spiritual values of natural area visitors and the general public: A comparative study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(6), 599-614.
  • Winter, C., & Lockwood, M. (2005). A model for measuring natural area values and park preferences. Environmental Conservation, 32(3), 270-278.
  • Winter, C. (2005). The use of values to understand visitors to natural areas: A study of campers on the Murray River. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 16 (1), 38-47.
  • Winter, C. (2005). Preferences and values for forests and wetlands: A comparison of farmers, environmentalists and the general public in Australia. Society and Natural Resources, 18 (6), 541-555.
  • Winter, C., Rose, J. (2004). A study of the Australian seniors market: Social concerns and marketing implications. Journal of Management and World Business Research, 1(1), 58-67.
  • Winter, C., & Lockwood, M. (2004). The natural area value scale: A new instrument for measuring natural area values. Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 11(1), 11-20.
  • Winter, C., Lockwood, M., & Morrison, M. (2003). Value based segmentation of community stakeholders: Application for natural area management. Natural Resource Management, (2), 33-40.

Conference Papers

  • Winter, C., & Knox, I. (2014). Centenaire 14-18 online: A brief review. CAUTHE, Tourism and Hospitality in the Contemporary World: Trends, Changes and Complexity. 10-13 February, 2014, Brisbane.
  • Winter, C. (2012). National visitation on the Western Front: A study of some Great War cemeteries. International Geographic Union Symposium, Transforming and Managing Destinations: Tourism and Leisure in a Time of Global Change and Risks, Trier, Germany, 22-25 August.
  • Winter, C. (2012). War and wine: A research agenda for battlefield hospitality. Refereed paper presented at the annual 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference. The New Golden Age of Tourism and Hospitality, 6-9 February, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 592-602.
  • Winter, C. (2010). A study of battlefield tourists in Ieper, Belgium. Paper presented at the annual 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference, 8-10 February, Hobart, Australia.
  • Winter, C. (2010). Education and storytelling about the Great War: The ‘Son et Lumière’ in Pozières, France. Paper presented at the annual 20th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference, 8-10 February, Hobart, Australia.
  • Winter, C., & Frew, EF. (2009). Climate change and modal shift: Changing the tradition of Australian domestic holidays. Paper presented at 7th International Symposium on Tourism and Sustainability, Travel and Tourism in the Age of Climate Change: Robust Findings, Key Uncertainties. 8-10 July, University of Brighton, Eastbourne.
  • Rose, J., & Winter, C. (2008). The role of food tourism in developing an emerging Queensland wine region: An exploratory study. Presented at the Academy of World Business, Marketing & Management Development Conference, July, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • Winter, C. (2008). Pozières and poppies: An analysis of a tourist marker for the Great War. refereed paper. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference: Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: 11-14 February, Gold Coast.
  • Frew, E.A., & Winter, C. (2008). Purchasing carbon offset flights in Australia: An exploration of airline websites. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference: Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice, 11-14 February, Gold Coast.
  • Winter, C. (2006). Exploring intrinsic values and attitudes toward modified natural sites. Academy of World Business Marketing and Management Development, July 10-13, Paris.
  • Winter, C. (2006). An exploration of the link between intrinsic and spiritual values for Nature: A comparison of the general public and tourists. Paper presented at the CAUTHE (Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education) conference, February, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Young, J., Ogunmokun, G., & Winter, C. (2005). Competitive marketing competencies and performance: An exploratory study of small to medium sized retail firms in Australia. ANZAM Conference Proceedings 7-10 December, Canberra
  • Hardy, H., Ogunmokun, G., & Winter, C. (2005). An exploratory study of factors influencing campers level of loyalty to camping sites in the tourism industry. ANZAM Conference Proceedings, 7-10 December, Canberra, pp. 1-11.
  • Winter, C., & Harrison, K. (2005). Crocodiles and oil prices: Northern Territory tourism as the ‘canary in the coal mine’ for global tourism. 4th International symposium on Aspects of Tourism: Mobility and Local-Global Connections, July, University of Brighton, Eastbourne.
  • Winter, C. (2005). True camping - Is there a place for it? Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) Conference, Alice Springs).
  • Winter, C. (2004). Riverland recreation: Some issues for management. New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 8-10 December.
  • Winter, C., Hardy, T., Chua Huishi, C., & Hjh Nur Fariza Munyati Hj, A. (2004). Hot air ballooning: adventure, romance or relaxation? Proceedings of the Academy of World Business Marketing and Management Development Conference, Gold Coast, pp. 823-831.
  • Winter C., & McPhail, J. (2004). Kangaroos, outback and indigenous culture: The development of ‘Australian’ brands for the international market. Proceedings of the Academy of World Business Marketing and Management Development Conference, Gold Coast, pp. 635-642.
  • Winter, C. (2004). Tourism, nation and power-knowledge: A Foucauldian perspective. Proceedings of CAUTHE (Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education) Conference, February, Brisbane